Chapter 11 tracks progress on CAADP indicators outlined in the CAADP Results Framework for 2015–2025 in the areas of economic growth, food and nutrition security, employment, poverty, agricultural production and productivity, intra-African trade and market performance, and public agriculture-sector expenditure. It also reviews countries’ progress in the CAADP implementation process and in strengthening systemic capacity to deliver results.
The Global Food Policy Report is IFPRI’s flagship publication. This year’s annual report examines major food policy issues, global and regional developments, and commitments made in 2015, and presents data on key food policy indicators. The report also proposes key policy options for 2016 and beyond to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. In 2015, the global community made major commitments on sustainable development and climate change. The global food system lies at the heart of these commitments—and we will only be able to meet the new goals if we work to transform our food system to be more inclusive, climate-smart, sustainable, efficient, nutrition- and health-driven, and business-friendly.
In addition to global events and food policy changes, 2015 also saw important developments with potentially wide repercussions in individual countries and regions. This chapter offers perspectives on major food policy developments across the major regions: Africa, the Middle East and North Africa, Central Asia, South Asia, East Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean. The individual regional sections cover many critical topics: Facing climate risks and growing populations with regional cooperation and accountability in Africa; Growing refugee populations, food insecurity, and conflict in the Middle East and North Africa; Vulnerability to external shocks and falling remittances that increase Central Asia’s food insecurity; New policies for food safety, nutrition, and financial and social inclusion in South Asia; Expected impacts of the Trans-Pacific Partnership in East Asia; Latin America and the Caribbean’s contribution to global food security and global environmental public goods
Focusing the 2015 Annual Trends and Outlook Report (ATOR) on nutrition will contribute to a broader understanding of the role and importance of nutrition in achieving international, continental, and national economic growth targets through agriculture, food security, and nutrition. This report presents information and analysis in support of evidencebased policy making at the moment when the second-generation CAADP national investment plans are being developed. This is an important moment for shaping the region’s future and ensuring that the much-needed agriculture-led growth and development agenda can simultaneously deliver on improving nutrition and health, saving lives, improving the productivity of Africa’s population, and curbing public health expenditure on nutrition-related diseases. This includes addressing not only the usual elements of undernutrition but also widespread micronutrient deficiencies (termed “hidden hunger”) and the growing problem of overweight and obesity that is increasing across the African continent.
Ghana has accepted the CAADP commitment to dedicate 10 percent of government spending to the agricultural sector. In a 2014 paper, Benin argues that Ghana falls short of that goal, and in a 2016 paper, Younger shows that despite the current fiscal crisis, there is fiscal space to meet the commitment. Benin estimates the rates of return to increased public expenditure on agriculture, finding that they are quite high, especially if the investments are made in the noncocoa sector. This paper uses Benin’s estimates to examine the poverty and inequality consequences of increasing public expenditure on agriculture. Key conclusions are that public expenditure on agriculture is surprisingly progressive, especially if spent in the grains subsector. This progressivity, combined with the high rate of return, means that public investment in agriculture may actually be more efficient at reducing poverty than LEAP, Ghana’s targeted conditional cash transfer program.
This study assesses the future growth prospects of Rwanda. The report first focuses on broad economic growth using a rather aggregated 18-sector dynamic general equilibrium model to display the trade-off between rapid growth and structural change. The analysis shows that with the current investment pattern, rapid growth is possible but structural transformation is slow. With an overvalued exchange rate, growth in the tradable sector slows down and its share in the economy stays small. The importance of agriculture thus should be considered in the broad development strategy, for its role not only in poverty reduction but also in economic growth.
This brief analyses the trends of food and input prices in the Eastern Africa region from year to year with 2007 as the base year. The brief provides information on the price changes in food and inputs at country and regional level to facilitate effective policy related decision making.
This Issue Note presents the current status and trends captured by key Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP) indicators that ReSAKSS has been tracking since 2008, at continental and regional levels. ReSAKSS was established by the CAADP Partnership Platform, and later endorsed by the African Union Conference of agricultural ministers, to serve as the formal CAADP review and learning platform, charged with tracking 30 core CAADP indicators. The data for the current indicators are published in the ReSAKSS Annual Trends and Outlook Reports (ATORs) and on the ReSAKSS website (www.resakss.org), where they can be accessed in the form of maps and graphs and can be freely downloaded in excel format and used for analysis.
As the official monitoring and evaluation (M&E) report of the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP), the ReSAKSS Annual Trends and Outlook Report (ATOR) assesses trends and progress on 30 CAADP core indicators as well as the implementation process on the ground. Starting in 2011, the ATOR has featured a selected topic of strategic importance to the CAADP agenda, to help guide its planning, implementation, and dialogue processes. The 2013
ATOR contributes to the emerging debate on resilience by taking a comprehensive look at how trade can enhance food security for Africa’s poor and vulnerable through greater resilience of local food markets to environmental and economic shocks. In particular, the report focuses on the role of resilience as it relates to the capacity of local food markets to absorb the effects of economic, biophysical, or other shocks, to minimize their impact on the short or long term food security of the poor and vulnerable.
Growing international commitment to sustainable development goals and notable progress in addressing food security—reflected in historically low levels of poverty and hunger in many developing countries—marked 2016. These successes are building momentum as the world seeks to end hunger and malnutrition. IFPRI is proud to contribute to progress toward these vital global goals. 2016 was the first year of implementation of the ambitious UN Sustainable Development Goals. At the ministerial-level OECD Meeting of the Committee for Agriculture, IFPRI Director General Shenggen Fan argued that improvements in the global food system will play a key role in achieving the SDGs. The 2016 Global Food Policy Report focused on reshaping the global food system to make it efficient, climate resilient, sustainable, nutrition- and health-driven, and business friendly, as means to meet these goals. The report’s signature chapter, written in collaboration with IFAD President Kanayo Nwanze, highlights the critical role that smallholders can play both in improving food security and in addressing the challenge of climate change. The 22nd United Nations Conference of the Parties (COP22) in Marrakech marked the entry into force of the Paris Agreement on climate change. At the conference, IFPRI researchers conveyed the critical role of food systems in climate change, new projections on the impact of climate change on food security, and the need to invest in climate-smart agriculture. Nutrition has also been in the spotlight. As part of the United Nations Decade of Action on Nutrition and in follow-up to the Second International Conference on Nutrition (ICN2), IFPRI participated in the International Symposium on Sustainable Food Systems for Healthy Diets and Improved Nutrition, which explored options for shaping food systems to deliver nutritious food for healthy diets. At the World Economic Forum Annual Meeting in Davos, IFPRI hosted an event on how to fill the global and national data gap on nutrition. IFPRI published the 2016 Global Nutrition Report, highlighting progress toward and obstacles to better nutrition, and Nourishing Millions: Stories of Change, which recounts success stories in improving nutrition around the world. The annual meeting and report of ReSAKSS, an Africa-wide program supporting rural development, focused on achieving a nutrition revolution in Africa.
Since 2006, the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) has provided policy research and capacity strengthening support to guide the planning and implementation of the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP). Endorsed in 2003 by African heads of state and government, CAADP is a continentwide framework for accelerating growth and progress toward poverty reduction and food and nutrition security through an agriculture-led growth strategy.
As part of IFPRI’s support to CAADP, the Regional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System (ReSAKSS) was established in 2006 to provide policy-relevant analysis, data, and tools necessary to support the formulation and implementation of evidence-based agricultural-sector policies and strategies, as well as to facilitate CAADP policy dialogue, peer review, benchmarking, and mutual learning processes. ReSAKSS is facilitated by IFPRI in partnership with Africa-based CGIAR centers, the African Union Commission (AUC), the NEPAD Planning and Coordinating Agency (NPCA), and leading regional economic communities.
Focusing the 2015 Annual Trends and Outlook Report (ATOR) on nutrition will contribute to a broader understanding of the critical role of nutrition in achieving international, continental, and national economic growth targets through agriculture, food security, and nutrition. This report presents information and analysis in support of evidence-based policy making that should inform the second generation of CAADP national investment plans now being developed. This is an important moment for shaping the region’s future and ensuring that the much-needed agriculture-led growth and development agenda can simultaneously deliver on improving nutrition, saving lives, improving productivity and health, and curbing nutrition-related diseases and the associated public health expenditures. These investment plans should address not only the usual elements of undernutrition but also widespread micronutrient deficiencies (termed “hidden hunger”) and the growing problem of overweight and obesity that is associated with economic growth.
The PEBAP project undertook in‐depth analyses of future economic growth and poverty reduction in three case‐study countries: Senegal, Ghana and Uganda. Analyses are based on a quantitative model we refer to as the CAADP‐lab tool‐kit. For each country researchers developed a baseline scenario of future economic growth and poverty reduction, projecting current CAADP‐2010 policies to 2025. Evidence on how spending and policy programs in agriculture and non‐agriculture in the past have helped transform each country’s economic growth and poverty reduction efforts was estimated using available national data. Results defined specific policy impact functions (PIFs) for each type of investment or policy reform in each individual country.
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